Posts by JCVI Staff

June Grant Update

Congratulations to our JCVI Principal Investigators for the several successful grants that were awarded or that we received notification of in the month of June. All of the following PIs received official confirmation of awards to be made to them. Christopher Dupont, John Glass, Granger Sutton, Daniel Gibson, Charles Merryman, Rembert Pieper, Richard Scheuermann, Christopher Town, Reed Shabman, Orianna Bretschger, Sanjay Vashee and Sarah Highlander to the sum of $6,365,099. The topics of these awards ranged from synthetic approaches to studying the human microbiome, vaccine development, protein modeling, studies on tuberculosis strain diversity, and immune profiling.

Of notable mention are the awards to be made to Sanjay Vashee $1,879,282 from the NSF (BREAD supplement that will allow for an extension of the current program focused on developing a synthetic vaccine for Bovine pleuropneumonia), Reed Shabman from DHS ($1,135,654; The development and validation of sequence subtraction databases to improve virus discovery through next generation sequencing – special acknowledgement to Tim Stockwell and Derek Harkins for their contributions to this proposal), and to Chris Town from NSF ($883,704; Federated Plant Data Base Initiative for Legumes).

A sincere Congratulations to the team.

Q&A with Jessie J. Knight, Jr.

The JCVI CEO Council is a small group of distinguished men and women who are thought leaders in business, medicine, law, the arts and humanities, and community affairs. JCVI is fortunate to have individuals willing to serve as knowledgeable and enthusiastic ambassadors for our scientists and their research, and we are excited to introduce you to our inaugural member, Jessie J. Knight, Jr., Executive Vice President for External Relations at Sempra Energy. Knight is a board member of the Seattle-based Alaska Air Group and Alaska Airline, life member of the Council on Foreign Relations in New York and member of the corporate council of the Hoover Institution of Stanford University. Knight is a well-respected businessman and philanthropist in San Diego. He is also a frustrated musician and has been playing jazz guitar for 30 years. For the past 5 years Knight has been playing the Chinese instrument called Erhu. The entire JCVI team is thrilled to have access to all of Knight’s talents and resources.

Jessie J. Knight, Jr.

Jessie J. Knight, Jr.

You are a native of Missouri. How did you end up in San Diego?

I moved to San Diego in 1999 from San Francisco after serving for six (6) years as the commissioner for the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), after being appointed by then-Gov. Pete Wilson. I was recruited to be the president and chief executive officer of the San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce.

You and your wife, Joye Blount, are respected philanthropists in San Diego. How important is giving back to your community?

As the executive vice president of external affairs for Sempra Energy and with Joye being a Wealth Advisor at US Bank of the Private Client Reserve, we have a professional duty to be present and active in the community and it serves our personal philanthropic interests as well. We have a special interest for organizations that cater to military families, education, improving health and the support of women.

How did you become interested in the J. Craig Venter Institute?

Joye and I have a special interest in JCVI as we have been following the impact of the discovery of the human genome. We believe it’s not only going to have an economic impact in San Diego but also on health worldwide. We believe gaining a better understanding of genetic diseases will allow for improved health and the opportunity to change the course of medicine.

We are excited to have you join the JCVI CEO Council. What do you hope to accomplish in this new role?

Joye and I have had the opportunity to build many great relationships with many individuals and organizations. We’d like to expose JCVI to those we know and increase the reach of JCVI and drive community involvement and philanthropic support to the great work of JCVI.

What environmental/health goals do you personally hope to see JCVI tackle?

I have a personal interest in learning more about the possibilities for gene therapy. My family has been dealing with a genetic disorder for many years, and I’m hoping with my involvement with JCVI that I can understand the opportunities that genomics has for new possible treatments for rare genetic disorders.

JCVI Scientist Tackles Global Sanitation Challenges

Orianna Bretschger received her B.S. in Physics and Astronomy at the University of Northern Arizona. After a five- year career in aerospace and consulting, she completed a Ph.D. in Materials Science at the University of Southern California. Eager to focus her efforts on alternative energy and sustainability, she joined the J. Craig Venter Institute in 2008. Over the course of her research tenure, Dr. Bretschger has established a productive team of researchers dedicated to understanding the fundamental mechanisms associated with extracellular electron transfer (a process that enables microbes to respire solid surfaces, i.e., “breathe rocks”) and applying that understanding to technology development for bioremediation, bioenergy, and water recycling.

Dr. Bretschger and team at White Labs with JCVI constructed reactor.

Dr. Bretschger and team at White Labs with JCVI constructed reactor.

Bretschger’s research group has secured over $11M of external funding from diverse resources including NASA, The State of California, The San Diego Foundation – Blasker Science and Technology Award, the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research, Synthetic Genomics Inc. and the Roddenberry Foundation. Her publications have drawn over 800 citations and most recently includes an article in Nature Communications, which describes a novel metatranscriptomic method for understanding metabolic relationships in highly diverse (over 400 species) microbial communities and new findings related to how microbes share electrons. The approach developed by her team can now be applied to many different environmental samples and begins to unravel the complex interactions that exist in our sediments, soils, oceans and fresh water resources. These studies will shed new light on how our changing environment will impact ecosystem function.

Reacter installation at San Pasqual High School

Reacter installation at San Pasqual High School

Her applied projects include the development and integration of microbial fuel cell systems that can remove contaminants from wastewater and transform the waste into direct electrical energy. Bretschger’s most recent awards include a $5M grant from the Roddenberry Foundation to demonstrate her microbial fuel cell technology as a sustainable sanitation approach to address the sanitation and related public health impacts in Latin America.  Further, a recent award from SPAWAR Pacific will test her technology at an S.E.R.E training base outside of San Diego and demonstrate its effectiveness for providing cost-effective water recycling and wastewater treatment to our militaries forward operating bases.

UABC and JCVI teams showing local elementary student how to do titrations while testing water quality in Baja MX.

UABC and JCVI teams showing local elementary student how to do titrations while testing water quality in Baja MX.

Bretschger has developed methods for how to apply her technology for the removal of medications and other toxic personal care products from wastewater; and is developing new methods for addressing the removal of nitrogen and phosphorous from agricultural waste streams (two big factors in creating ‘dead zones’ in our coastal waters).

Growing up in the Southwest, access to water has always been paramount in Bretschger’s life.  She lived through periods without access to plumbing and running water, and therefore knows first hand some of the basic challenges families face.  One third of the world’s population has no access to sanitation, resulting in high child mortality rates and a critical lack of public health and safety. Today, Bretschger directs a lab of nine researchers and five interns (high school through master’s level students) and conducts collaborative work throughout San Diego and across the International boarder. Her installations can be seen at the San Pasqual High School Agricultural center and previously at White Labs. Bretschger believes her team is poised to have a real impact on the global sanitation crisis, she just needs more funding “ to go faster and to go bigger.” Her Roddenberry funded efforts will lead to the installation of improved sanitation systems at a school in San Quintin, Mexico over the next two years, and she hopes to expand these efforts globally to begin addressing the critical sanitation needs for nearly 2.6 billion people world-wide.

Dr. Venter Delivers UCSD 2015 School of Medicine Commencement

Continue reading ‘Dr. Venter Delivers UCSD 2015 School of Medicine Commencement’

Johns Hopkins Announces Inaugural Recipient of Hamilton Smith Award for Innovative Research

JCVI’s Hamilton O. Smith, MD has been recognized by Johns Hopkins University with a research award in his honor. The inaugural recipient of the award is Jie Xiao, an associate professor of biophysics and biophysical chemistry at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Dr. Smith was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1978 for his discovery of restriction enzymes, work he conducted while he was a young faculty member at Johns Hopkins.

Meet Richard Scheuermann, Ph.D., JCVI’s Director of Bioinformatics

Richard H. Scheuermann, Ph.D., who joined JCVI in 2012 from the University of Texas Southwestern as the Director of Bioinformatics, is an accomplished researcher and educator. He and his team apply their deep knowledge in molecular immunology and infectious disease to develop novel computational data mining methods and knowledge representation approaches.

Richard Scheuermann

Richard Scheuermann, Ph.D., JCVI’s Director of Bioinformatics

From an early age, Richard was very interested in science and the living world around him.  He was a curious child who loved to explore the ponds and fields in his hometown of Warwick, New York.   This rural community in upstate New York is covered with dairy farms and apple orchards.  He demonstrated an early aptitude for math and science and was fortunate to have talented high school teachers who recognized his potential.   Although neither of Richard’s parents were college educated, they encouraged his academic pursuits.  When Richard and his father met the high school guidance counselor, Richard told of his intention to attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).  The response from the counselor was a resounding, “There is no way you’ll ever get in.” Richard applied to MIT (and only MIT) anyway, and was accepted by early decision.

At MIT Richard intended to pursue a career in chemical engineering (CE) but to his surprise, he found that he loathed the CE classes.  While trying to identify a new study path, Richard took a biochemistry class to fulfill a CE requirement.  This class would change Richard’s career path.  While at MIT, Richard worked in the lab of Annamaria Torrianni-Gorini, Ph.D. and received first hand experience in conducting scientific research.  He was inspired by his peers and professors and had found his calling. During this time he also had the privilege to study with Salvador Luria, Ph.D., David Baltimore, Ph.D., David Botstein, Ph.D., and Phil Sharp, Ph.D., all luminaries in their fields. Richard received a B.S. in Life Sciences from MIT in 1981.

Richard went on to complete his Ph.D. in Molecular Biology at the University of California, Berkeley.  After completing his doctoral research on bacterial replication fidelity at U.C. Berkeley with Hatch Echols, Ph.D., Richard was offered his own research lab in Europe.  He accepted an independent research position at the Basel Institute for Immunology in Switzerland, where he identified the CDP protein as a critical regulator of immunoglobin gene expression and the role of nuclear matrix attachment in transcription regulation.

Although Richard had trained as a molecular biologist, in 1992 he was recruited into the Department of Pathology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (U.T. Southwestern) in Dallas.  Apprehensive at the beginning to find himself in a clinical department, as he had at every previous crossroads, Richard quickly embraced the opportunity before him.  He changed his research focus to disease and disease pathogenesis, and he rose to the rank of Professor with tenure. Richard established a robust research program at U.T. Southwestern investigating signal transduction pathways that regulate normal lymphocyte development and function and that induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and dormancy in lymphomas. This important work was supported through numerous research grants from the National Institutes of Health, the American Cancer Society, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and other granting agencies.  In the Pathology Department, he also worked on the development and validation of novel diagnostic methods for viruses that mediate chronic infectious disease and for chromosomal translocations that drive leukemia and lymphoma development.

Half way through his U.T. Southwestern career, Richard had found life in the wet lab less and less fulfilling.  Through his involvement in several high-throughput research projects Richard realized that it was becoming relatively easy to generate lots of data but more difficult to analyze the information.  And so he decided to take a sabbatical year at the San Diego Supercomputer Center to immerse himself into the emerging field of bioinformatics. After his time in San Diego, Richard was drawn into the bioinformatics discipline, and he redirected his career with three research and development proposals funded in rapid succession.

Richard established a very successful bioinformatics program at U.T. Southwestern; however, he was searching for new opportunities to expand on his success.  In 2012, the invitation to join JCVI, a “bleeding-edge research institution that valued informatics” could not be ignored.

As the Director of Bioinformatics at JCVI, Richard leads a multi-disciplinary team of computational biologists. Richard and his team continue to develop novel computational methods to accelerate data mining and statistical analysis. These methods have been made available to the research community through several public database and analysis resources, including the Influenza Research Database (IRD;, the Virus Pathogen Resource (ViPR; and the Immunology Database and Analysis Portal (ImmPort; supported by the National Institutes of Health. His current research is focused on human pathogenic viruses—how they spread and cause disease.  He is a part of the elite community that responds to virus outbreaks, such as the recent Ebola and Enterovirus D68 occurrences.  This “real time sorting out” of emerging infectious diseases keeps his still curious New York state of mind engaged and excited about his work.

In his spare time Richard enjoys swimming, soccer and skiing and spending time with his wife, Nancy, and sons, Alex and Derek.  Over the past thirteen years, he has studied martial arts, earning his first-degree black belt.   As it was in the outskirts of Warwick, Richard continues to explore his new San Diego environment, and is rapidly becoming an avid sailor.

Richard’s commitment and determination to a path, whether on the high seas or in the lab, are unrivaled.  Like him, his peers at JCVI are excited to see where his research will take us next.

Zoo in You Exhibit Now Open

Did you know trillions of microbes make their homes inside your body? In fact, these microorganisms outnumber our human cells 10 to 1, “colonize” us right from birth, and are so interwoven into our existence that without each other, none of us would survive! Thanks to new sophisticated technology and the cutting-edge research of the Human Microbiome Project, we are just starting to discover what these microbes are up to and how they affect us. And now in Zoo in You: The Human Microbiome, a new 2,000 square foot bilingual traveling exhibit created in partnership between JCVI and the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI), and funded by a SEPA grant from the NIH, visitors can now explore this fascinating and complex world inside us that is our microbiome—a dynamic, adaptable, and delicately balanced ecosystem like any other found in nature.

A few of the Zoo in You components including “Weather Reports” and “Microbes in the Family”

A few of the Zoo in You components including “Weather Reports” and “Microbes in the Family”

The exhibition features 15 interactive, free floating hands on components that are designed to focus on three overarching topic areas to educate and inform visitors on the concept that our bodies are complex ecosystems that we are just starting to understand and explore.  Through these exhibit components museum goers will “meet the microbes” to learn about the organisms which live on and inside us from the moment we are born, to understanding the importance of the dynamic and delicately balanced human microbiome in “balanced ecosystems”, and lastly visitors will “explore the microbiome” to learn the importance of scientific research to increase our understanding of human health.

Zoo In You introduction component “Meet the Microbes”

Zoo In You introduction component “Meet the Microbes”

There are numerous interactive, hands on activities for visitors.  Such activities include “Weather Reports” where guests will have the opportunity to interact with green screen technology to give a weather report on the climate conditions of your nose, gut or skin.  They also will be able to build a DNA Puzzle where they race against the clock to assemble a DNA strand and participate in a hand washing contest.   Participants can challenge each other in exhibit components such as “Microbes in Balance”, a large touch screen video game to see if they can keep their “health-o-meter” in balance and in “Microbe Mirror” a motion sensing activity where visitors come face to face with their full body reflection and control the changes in their microbiome as they react to everyday occurrences.  Throughout the exhibit components feature contributions by JCVI Scientists Dr. Karen E. Nelson, Dr. Hernan A. Lorenzi, and Dr. Ramana Madupu including “Stories & Choices” an activity where visitors listen to the scientist interviews and make choices based on various fun questions which relate to microbiome research.

The Zoo in You exhibit is now on display at the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) in Portland, OR through July 2015, it will then travel to Science Works Hands-On Museum in Ashland, OR October through December 2015.  It will begin its national tour at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center in San Diego, CA in partnership with JCVI.

In Memory of Dr. J. Robert Beyster

The JCVI family mourns the loss of a true friend and generous supporter, Dr. J. Robert Beyster.  Dr. Beyster was a World War II Veteran, a nuclear engineer whose research propelled the Department of Defense’s weapons systems and submarines into the future of war fighting, but most notably, he founded Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), an employee-owned multi-billion dollar corporation.

Bob and Betty Beyster

Bob and Betty Beyster

The Beyster Family have been generous supporters of science programs at the JCVI since 2009 when they, along with matching funds from Life Technologies Foundation, sponsored a two year leg of the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition. This substantial support from the Beyster Family enabled sampling research of microbial life in the waters of the Baltic, Mediterranean, and Black Seas. These are scientifically important because they are among the world’s largest seas isolated from the major oceans. To date more than 80 million new genes and protein families have been discovered as part of the Sorcerer II Expedition.

The Beysters have also supported JCVI scientist Andy Allen, Ph.D. and his Southern California Upwelling Sampling Project. Dr. Allen has conducted sampling expeditions along the Southern California coast to better understand the microbes living in these waters. Dr. Beyster participated in 8 of the 11 sampling excursions that were conducted from his own boat, Solutions. He blogged about a major regional dinoflagellate bloom that was sampled as part of this project.

Importantly, this work has led to an exciting new San Diego-based collaboration between JCVI, NOAA and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) to integrate genome-enabled techniques and technologies (i.e., ‘omics) into the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisherines Investigations (CalCOFI).  CalCOFI is a multi-partner, long-term ecosystem and fisheries study off the coast of California in it’s 7th decade.

The most recent $2.5 Million gift in 2012 for the completion of the new J. Craig Venter Institute sustainable laboratory was recognized by naming the third floor ocean view conference room and terrace the “Bob and Betty Beyster Conference Room” and the “Bob and Betty Beyster Terrace”.

Beyster Conference Room and Terrace

Left: Looking up at the Beyster Conference Room and Terrace from the ground floor. Right: Sunset on the Beyster Terrace.

Dr. Beyster will be greatly missed by his family, friends and colleagues.  We are fortunate to have a constant a reminder of his generosity and support.  A link to his obituary can be found here.

Science on the Sea Ice Edge

On Sunday, December 14th JCVI scientists Andy Allen, Erin Bertrand, and Jeff Hoffman flew to New Zealand to begin the arduous journey to the sea ice edge of Antarctica.  The JCVI team was joined by three members of the University of Southern California, led by David Hutchins, and three members of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), led by Deborah Bronk.  This is the second field season of the second three-year NSF funded collaborative project for the Allen team.  The first field season for the current project was in December 2012/January 2013; the second year was postponed due to the government shutdown in late 2013 delaying our trip until December 2014.  The major objectives of this collective fieldwork are to understand how changes in micronutrient availability, temperature, and pCO2 will impact growth, community composition, and nutrient utilization in Southern Ocean phytoplankton.


JCVI Antarctic Expedition
JCVI Antarctic ExpeditionPictures from Antarctic Expedition

Antarctica and the Southern Ocean remain one of the most untouched regions on the planet making this area extremely valuable for research related to the impacts of climate change on biota. The Southern Ocean is a system of currents linking all of the Earth’s ocean.  It is the most prolific of our oceans, and by conducting genome-enabled investigations targeting phytoplankton, plant like organisms consisting mostly of algae and bacteria that are the base of oceanic food webs, JCVI scientists glean insight into key biological underpinnings.  A key research challenge is identification of basic characteristics, features and genomic fingerprints that are sensitive to environmental shifts that impact surface waters and result in   nutrient cascading effects.  JCVI scientists are establishing valuable baselines to identify impacts of climate change on ocean ecosystems.  This research is used in turn to create models of ocean circulation and phytoplankton distribution patterns that will help scientists, policy makers and politicians identify and address the worldwide effects of climate change.

This research can be especially challenging because of the geographic isolation of the Southern Ocean.  Upon arrival in New Zealand, the JCVI team spends a day securing extreme cold weather gear and viewing safety videos.  We then wait patiently to depart on a military plane: LC-130 Hercules.  While the LC-130 is known for its reliability to reach austere locations, the flight is often at the mercy of mechanical failure and weather changes.  After a nine hour, extremely loud and rumbling flight, the team disembarks onto a sheet of ice.  Despite this being a repeat trip for many of us, it is still amazing to find yourself traversing a remote sheet of ice.  From here, we board the transport vehicle Ivan the Terra Bus for the 45-minute ride to McMurdo Station on Ross Island.

Orientation to station life can be challenging. There are acronyms for everything.  Despite the presence of approximately 1000 residents, one is aware of the lack of “home like” sounds from pets and children, and the feelings of isolation are real and enduring.  Interestingly less than 10% of the Station population is scientists.  We work with military and station support staff daily, and despite the isolation, a sense of camaraderie and a bond based on shared experience develops immediately.  Another note of interest is that the weather at times is not that bad at McMurdo despite what you may have seen in the movies.  In fact, our friends and family in Boston had it much worse!

After arriving at McMurdo, the team spent 9 days completing required safety training, securing logistical support and preparing the lab.  Our research activities consisted of weekly helicopter expeditions to the sea ice edge where large volumes of water were filtered for analyses of DNA, RNA and proteins.  Live phytoplankton samples were also collected in a manner specifically designed to prevent contamination by iron and other trace metals. There are inherent dangers traveling to the sea ice edge.  In the company of penguins and whales, the team must be aware of potential ice shifts, developing cracks and breakouts.  We travel with a mountaineer who works to maintain our safety.  When working close to the ice edge, we are each secured via ropes and pulleys—it can be intense.  We also have to watch the weather.  Many times in order to keep samples from freezing, you could see us breaking out the hairdryers and camping stoves.  Whatever it takes!

Our “live water” samples were transported back to the laboratory at McMurdo and used to conduct various manipulative experiments aimed at investigating the synergistic impact of change in Iron (Fe) and Vitamin B12 availability as well as increases in temperature and pCO2 levels.  One of the major challenges the team faced was keeping these experiments free of dust in order to avoid iron contamination.  This was a particular challenge because McMurdo Station is built on a pile of extremely dry, dusty, volcanic soil.  The team persevered, of course, and completed numerous trace metal clean experiments.

To date, these manipulative experiments have yielded preliminary results suggesting that changing micronutrient availability and increasing temperature will have major impacts on the base of the Antarctic food web.  These include changes in mutualistic relationships between phytoplankton and bacteria and changes in the rate of consumption in major nutrients, both of which are likely to have important downstream effects throughout the global ocean. Analyses of gene and protein expression changes in the field and in these experiments are just beginning to yield further insight into how the Southern Ocean will respond to a changing earth.

On January 27th, exhausted, but with a very successful expedition completed, the team returned to New Zealand.  It is challenging to be away from your friends and family for 2 months at time.  As we return to the real world though, we arrive feeling lucky and privileged.  JCVI scientists see a region of the world and experience amazing days of wildlife that few people will ever know first-hand.  Studying phytoplankton and ocean ecosystems is in fact a privilege and the research JCVI scientists and other teams are doing in Antarctica will have a lasting impact on the future of our planet.

Animal Forensics and Molecular Biology Techniques

A one-day high school workshop for New Hampton School’s Project Week

Hosted by the J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland – March 11, 2015

Every March, the New Hampton School, an independent high school in New Hampshire, holds Project Week, an experiential learning program that allows students to choose from a wide array of unique activities, both on and off campus.  This year, one project group traveled to Washington D.C. to complete a program on forensic biology, which included activities at both the Crime Museum and the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI).

On Wednesday, March 11, 2015, ten high school students and two teachers visited JCVI to learn about molecular biology techniques and animal forensics.  Their activities were coordinated by Dr. Karla Stucker, a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Virology Group at JCVI, and included a review of DNA structure and replication, a tour of the Institute, lessons about PCR and gel electrophoresis techniques, hands-on laboratory exercises, and a discussion about animal forensics with case examples.  Dr. Suchismita Chandran, a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Synthetic Biology Group at JCVI, assisted with the laboratory exercises.

Animal Forensics Discussion with Dr. Karla Stucker. Photo courtesy New Hampton School.

Animal Forensics Discussion with Dr. Karla Stucker. Photo courtesy of New Hampton School.

Upon arrival, each participant “adopted” a dog for the day by picking from various photos of different pure-bred and mixed breed dogs. They thus became dog owners living in an upscale apartment complex in Bethesda, where they were required to submit cheek swab samples from their pets to be entered into a DNA database. Our gel electrophoresis experiment was designed to reveal which dog owner(s) failed to pick up after their pet(s) by checking for a match between cheek swab samples and a stool sample.  The test made use of size differences in PCR amplicons from a hypothetical microsatellite marker that helps distinguish dog breeds.  We also discussed more serious animal forensic cases, including those involving wildlife trafficking and the recent case of a poisoned show dog at Crufts, a large dog show in the UK.

Dr. Suchi Chandran assists students with a hand-on gel electrophoresis activity. Photo courtesy of New Hampton School.

Dr. Suchi Chandran assists students with a hand-on gel electrophoresis activity. Photo courtesy of New Hampton School.

Each day, the students blog about their experiences.  One student, Amy, wrote, “We saw many young and passionate researchers working hard in their labs, which made us feel excited and got us looking forward to being scientists. The lab room was clean, organized and bright. We were not allowed to touch anything without gloves due to personal protection. After visiting, we have a better understanding of how scientists’ workplaces should look like, and their rigorous attitudes towards science.”